as time

as shape

aspect ratio

onscreen and offscreen space


uninterrupted sequence of frames forming a continous image


one or more shots

- all at the same time

- all in the same place

- exception: crosscutting, as in cutting back
and forth during a phone conversation

- the sequence or master shot

camera distance

extreme long shot

long shot

full shot

medium shot

common medium shot types: two shot, three shot

close up

extreme close up

depth of field and lenses

that portion of the frame in focus

shallow focus

deep focus

soft focus


- exaggerates depth and distance

- can distort perspective

- wide depth of field


- like the human eye in perspective and focus

long or telephoto

- shallow depth of field

- flattens space

- makes elements larger

- often used to "rack focus"

camera angle

eye-level (neutral effect)

low angle

high angle


oblique angle or Dutch angle

classical basic camera movements

tilt up or down

dolly in, dolly out (tracking shot)

pan left, pan right

truck left, truck right (tracking shot)

pedestal up, pedestal down

crane shot

modern variations on camera movement


handheld shot

Steadicam shot